飞行汽车有时比电动汽车环保

2019-04-11 22:41

就像Marty McFly由香蕉提供动力的 “德罗宁” 时光机一样,未来一代的飞行汽车可能颠覆所有飞行都对气候有害的观念。最新研究日前发表于《自然—通讯》杂志。

诸如劳斯莱斯飞行汽车、莉莉姆、垂直航空等公司曾辩称,飞行汽车可能是一种绿色交通方式,尽管它们起飞需要大量能源。

关于此类垂直起降飞行器(VTOLs)对环境影响的首批研究表明,它们的支持者可能是对的,至少在某些情况下是如此。

美国密歇根大学的Gregory Keoleian和同事发现,如果VTOLs升空,其产生的排放量比一辆电动汽车行驶100公里以上的排放量少6%。

“VTOLs在起降过程中的能量消耗特别大。然而,巡航阶段的飞行非常高效,并且在长距离飞行时,如果载满人,完全可与地面车辆的效率竞争。”Keoleian介绍说。

飞行汽车还有一个优势:能避开弯弯曲曲的路线,在一条直线上飞行。

不过,现在还不要贸然行动。其中的差别非常小,而且面临着好几个打击。首先,会飞的汽车还不存在——目前它们仅处于原型阶段。

这些原型机依靠电力推进,并且可像直升机一样垂直降落,从而充当空中出租车。但另一个问题是,这项研究有点像苹果、橘子之间的比较。

研究人员假定,每辆电动汽车平均搭载1.54人,而飞行汽车的乘客和司机分别为3人和1人。作出这种假定的理由是:飞行汽车将提供像UberPool一样的共享出租车服务,但实际上电动汽车也可以做到这一点。此外,由于起飞时需要能源,飞行汽车35公里以下的行程产生的排放量将超过电动汽车。

Keoleian及其团队得出的结论是,飞行汽车在可持续交通领域可能会有一席之地。不过,即使被证明是绿色的,它们也有很多需要跨越的障碍。

劳斯莱斯飞行汽车

English version

Like Marty McFly's banana-powered “Dronin” time machine, future generations of flying cars may overturn the notion that all flights are harmful to the climate. The latest research was published in the journal Nature-Communication.

Companies such as Rolls Royce, Lilym, and Vertical Aviation have argued that flying cars may be a form of green transportation, although they require a lot of energy to take off.

The first studies on the environmental impact of such vertical takeoff and landing vehicles (VTOLs) suggest that their supporters may be right, at least in some cases.

Gregory Keoleian and colleagues at the University of Michigan found that if VTOLs were launched, they would emit 6% less emissions than an electric car driving more than 100 kilometers.

“VTOLs have a particularly high energy consumption during the takeoff and landing process. However, the flight during the cruise phase is very efficient, and when flying over long distances, if it is full, it can compete with the efficiency of the ground vehicle,” Keoleian said.

Flying cars also have an advantage: they can avoid the winding route and fly in a straight line.

However, do not act rashly now. The difference is very small and faces several blows. First of all, the flying cars don't exist yet - they are currently in the prototype stage.

These prototypes rely on electric propulsion and can land vertically like a helicopter to act as an air taxi. But another problem is that this study is a bit like a comparison between apples and oranges.

The researchers assume that each electric car carries an average of 1.54 passengers, while the passengers and drivers of the flying car are three and one. The reason for this assumption is that the flying car will provide a shared taxi service like UberPool, but in fact electric cars can do the same. In addition, due to the need for energy during take-off, the emissions from the flight below 35 km will exceed that of electric vehicles.

Keoleian and his team concluded that flying cars may have a place in the field of sustainable transportation. However, even if they prove to be green, they have many obstacles to overcome.

(文编译:飞行汽车 www.flycar.com.cn)

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