自动驾驶载人飞行器定位系统

2019-09-06 21:17

其实定位系统是飞控系统中的一部分,但定位系统真的太重要了;随着行业无人机例如:测绘、植保无人机编队等走入人们的视野之中,RTK定位技术进入了大众的视野。但是RTK是什么?再此科普,RTK是由GPS接收设备、数据传输系统和实施动态测量的软件系统三个部分组成。在工作时将一台接收机置于基准站上,另一台或几台接收机置于载体(称为移动站)上,基准站和移动站同时接收同一时间、同一GPS卫星发射的信号,基准站所获得的观测值与已知位置信息进行比较,得到GPS差分改正值。然后将这个改正值通过无线电数据链电台及时传递给共视卫星的移动站精化其GPS观测值,从而得到经差分改正后移动站较准确的实时位置。说到根上RTK其实一款基于GPS的系统,可以给GPS提供更准确的位置,号称厘米级定位。

自动驾驶载人飞行器定位系统

那RTK定位系统真的就可以做到万无一失了么?未必,因为现在城市环境比较复杂,很多位置都存在这GPS干扰,甚至还有很多人都拥有GPS干扰器,而GPS受到干扰之后,RTK的作用就没有那么大了。从控制导航系统来讲,GPS干扰就是给无人机的控制系统发送虚假的地理位置坐标,或者直接阻断你的GPS,这其实很简单,由于无人机接收GPS信号总以最强的信号源为准,所以只要干扰的信号足够强,什么类型的无人机都是逃不过干扰的(甚至那些军用无人机也不例外)。

English version

In fact, the positioning system is a part of the flight control system, but the positioning system is really too important; with the industry drones such as: surveying and mapping, plant protection drone formations, etc. into the people's field of vision, RTK positioning technology has entered The public's vision. But what is RTK? In this science, RTK is composed of GPS receiving equipment, data transmission system and software system for implementing dynamic measurement. In operation, one receiver is placed on the base station, and the other receiver or receivers are placed on a carrier (called a mobile station). The base station and the mobile station simultaneously receive signals transmitted by the same GPS satellite at the same time. The observations obtained by the base station are compared with the known position information to obtain GPS differential correction values. The corrected value is then transmitted to the mobile station of the common-view satellite through the radio data link station to refine its GPS observations, thereby obtaining a more accurate real-time position of the mobile station after the differential correction. Speaking of RTK, a GPS-based system can provide a more accurate location for GPS, known as centimeter-level positioning.

Can the RTK positioning system really be foolproof? Not necessarily, because the urban environment is more complicated now, there are GPS interferences in many locations, and even many people have GPS jammers. After the GPS is interfered, the role of RTK is not so great. From the perspective of controlling the navigation system, GPS interference is to send false geographic coordinates to the control system of the drone, or directly block your GPS. This is actually very simple, because the drone receives the GPS signal and always has the strongest signal. The source is correct, so as long as the signal of the interference is strong enough, what type of drone can't escape the interference (even those military drones are no exception).

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