地面自动驾驶与空中自动驾驶的PK

2019-11-22 13:17

2019年年初,伊隆·马斯克发布推特:“下一代Roadster将可以做到像这样”,并配上一张垂直起降的飞行汽车动图。这位疯狂梦想家还公布,特斯拉将在2022年制造出一款飞行汽车——大型“真香”现场。


随着“无聊的隧道”出局,“堵车解决方案”还剩下两位实力“竞争者”,自动驾驶汽车和UAM,换句话说,地面自动驾驶与空中自动驾驶的PK。


两种类型的自动驾驶,都在挑战现行的交通方式,颠覆人类的出行习惯。


2018年3月,Uber自动驾驶汽车撞人致死事件为整个行业泼了一盆冷水。事实上关于自动驾驶汽车是否能够缓解交通拥堵,更多学者也持怀疑态度。


世界经济论坛在2018年6月底公布了一份关于自动驾驶的研究报告,指出:未来十年,随着自动驾驶汽车和各类出行服务的发展,城市中心的交通拥堵现象不会减少,反而会加剧。


2019年,加州大学圣克鲁兹分校教授亚当•米拉德-鲍尔(Adam Millard-Ball)在《交通政策杂志》上发表的一项研究报告提出了一个观点,自动驾驶汽车解放人们的双手和大脑并且不需要驾驶技能,将成为一个休息空间,更多的人们反而更愿意选择乘车出行,街上的汽车数量可能会呈指数级增长。


那么空中的自动驾驶呢?它的劣势在于整个行业目前仍处于早期的产品研发阶段。不过,也有企业已经提出过相关的整体解决方案。

亿航智能指挥调度中心

亿航智能指挥调度系统运行中


亿航曾在采访中透露,“空中的士”其实更像是“空中地铁”。“为了地面人员和乘客的安全,‘空中的士’一定是按照预设好的航线飞行,绝对不能乱飞。所以现在我们将所有的飞行器连入移动通信网络,用一个指挥调度系统对它们进行集群控制。很像现在指挥民航客机的塔台,可以完成航线规划、多台飞行器调度管理,实现自动驾驶。”据亿航相关人士透露,未来将设置许多“飞行的士”起降站点,乘客可以通过手机APP找到距离自己最近的站点,预约“飞的”。


目前亿航已经与广州市达成战略合作,双方希望共同打造出全球第一个UAM试点城市。另外,另一家“飞行的士”初创企业Volocopter正在与新加坡合作,有消息称,双方正在建设“飞行的士”起降平台。


两家企业的“飞行的士”都采用垂直起降设计,极大减少起降平台占地面积,建设成本也相对降低,可充分利用城市内高楼建筑的顶部平台。


如果把起降平台和道路、高架桥等基建成本也算进来,空中自动驾驶的成本可能比地面自动驾驶更低。同时,空中自动驾驶速度更快,效率更高,另外空中的3D空间相较于地面的2D平面,自动驾驶的活动空间更广更灵活,几乎没有交通拥堵的可能。


市场似乎对UAM更为乐观。今年G7峰会前,英国首相鲍里斯·约翰逊宣布设立3亿英镑(26亿余元人民币)的专项扶持资金,重点就是推动电动垂直起降机型(eVTOL)和物流无人机的研发和城市空中交通应用。美国NASA也开启了多个eVTOL研发项目,2018年5月与Uber签订协议,5年内实现“空中的士”。摩根士丹利发布研究报告称,到2040年,UAM市场将达到1.5万亿美元。

英文版


English version

At the beginning of 2019, Elon Musk issued a tweet: "The next generation of Roadster will be able to do this like this" with a vertical car movement. The crazy dreamer also announced that Tesla will build a flying car in 2022 - a large "real incense" scene.


With the "boring tunnel" out, the "blocking solution" has two remaining "competitors", self-driving cars and UAM, in other words, ground-based autopilot and PK in the air.


Both types of autonomous driving are challenging the current mode of transportation and subverting human travel habits.


In March 2018, Uber's self-driving car crashed into a cold water for the entire industry. In fact, more scholars are also skeptical about whether autonomous vehicles can alleviate traffic congestion.


The World Economic Forum published a research report on autonomous driving at the end of June 2018, stating that in the next decade, with the development of autonomous vehicles and various types of travel services, traffic congestion in urban centers will not decrease, but instead Intensified.


In 2019, a study published by Adam Millard-Ball, a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, in the Journal of Transportation Policy, put forward a point of view, autonomous cars driving people's hands and brains And without the need to drive skills, it will become a resting space, more people are more willing to choose to travel by car, the number of cars on the street may increase exponentially.


So what about automatic driving in the air? Its disadvantage is that the entire industry is still in the early stage of product development. However, some companies have already proposed related overall solutions.


Yihang intelligent command and dispatch system is running


Yi Hang said in an interview that "air taxis" are actually more like "air subways." "For the safety of ground personnel and passengers, the 'air taxi' must be flying according to the preset route, and must not fly. So now we connect all the aircraft into the mobile communication network and use a command and dispatch system to carry them on. Cluster control. Much like the tower that now directs passenger airliners, it can complete route planning, multiple aircraft dispatch management, and achieve automatic driving." According to relevant sources of Yihang Airlines, many "flight taxis" landing and landing sites will be set up in the future. Find the nearest station on your mobile app and book a "flying".


Yihang 216 self-driving aircraft manned flying over Guangzhou city


At present, Yihang Airlines has reached a strategic cooperation with Guangzhou City, and both parties hope to jointly build the world's first UAM pilot city. In addition, another "flight taxi" startup Volocopter is working with Singapore. It is reported that the two sides are building a "flight taxi" landing platform.


The “flying taxis” of the two companies all adopt vertical take-off and landing design, which greatly reduces the footprint of the landing and landing platform, and the construction cost is relatively low. It can make full use of the top platform of the high-rise buildings in the city.


If infrastructure costs such as landing platforms and roads, viaducts, etc. are included, the cost of airborne autonomous driving may be lower than that of ground-based autonomous driving. At the same time, the automatic driving in the air is faster and more efficient. In addition, the 3D space in the air is wider and more flexible than the 2D plane on the ground, and there is almost no traffic congestion.


The market seems to be more optimistic about UAM. Before the G7 summit this year, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced the establishment of a special support fund of 300 million pounds (2.6 billion yuan), focusing on the development of electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOL) and logistics drones and urban air Traffic application. NASA also launched a number of eVTOL R&D projects. In May 2018, it signed an agreement with Uber to achieve "air taxis" within five years. Morgan Stanley released a research report saying that by 2040, the UAM market will reach 1.5 trillion US dollars.

(图/文编译:飞行汽车 http://www.flycar.com.cn/

声明:未经原创作者飞行汽车网允许不得转载本文内容,否则将视为侵权,本站依法保留追究权!

分享到:
友情链接
© 2005 - 现在 飞行汽车网 苏ICP备19013935号 违法和不良信息举报:jubao@flycar.com.cn
© 2005 - 现在 飞行汽车网 苏ICP备19013935号
违法和不良信息举报:jubao@flycar.com.cn