飞行汽车设计灵感究竟是从哪里而来的呢?

2019-12-07 10:05

1904年,儒勒·凡尔纳在其著作《全球主宰者》中,叙述了一种形近翼龙的上空飞车。它是那位科幻小说之父,对将来交通出行的乌托邦想像。

五年后《卫报》刊登的一篇预测分析文章内容,持续了这类想像。创作者坚信:来到21新世纪,城市的天空上,将遍及飞行汽车。

以便保持这类杰出想象,梦想家刚开始行動了。

1917年,格伦·柯蒂斯用铝块生产制造了一辆飞行汽车。整部车遵照了凡尔纳的构想,车体配有只翼展将近12米的飞机翼,后尾则装上四叶子的螺旋式助推器。但是,这架人类的历史上第一部飞行汽车,并沒有取得成功老天爷。格伦·柯蒂斯之后和莱特兄弟合拼了企业,柯蒂斯-莱特企业变成了那时候英国较大的航空公司生产制造企业。

飞机场科学家的不成功,沒有吹灭大家的激情。1926年,小车巨亨福特汽车公布了他的飞行汽车方案:Ford Flivver。福特公司的研发部门开发设计出了一款,金属材料骨架图、含有木制飞机翼的两缸小车。《卫报》的一位自由撰稿人乃至为这一念头奉上了一首诗:

我梦见我就是天使之,升高到福特汽车的人间天堂。

大家激动得过早。这一方案一样不成功了。

理想被战事切断。战事又产生新的狂想。

美国洛克希德公司研发的垂直起降战斗器

二战期内,二战德军和同盟国刚开始将直升飞机和旋翼式飞机场用以竞技场。这类能够垂直起降的四轴飞行器,不用长程的运动场与飞机场设备。后面一种,更是战事中任何一方都无法守护的敏感设备。

融合这类技术性,及其在弹道导弹方案的启迪下,意大利人刚开始设计方案一种火箭弹促进的四轴飞行器。航空员能够在起飞的最终环节,操纵这类四轴飞行器,进而合理精准打击同盟国总体目标。悲剧与好运的一点是,这架四轴飞行器在第一次载客检测时,即宣布失事和航空员的身亡。

自此,法国再次开发设计了一种更加奇特的飞机场。在其头顶部,戴有一个三叶子的超大助推器,起飞时飞机场垂直平分路面。此次试着一样宣布不成功,但它启迪了1950时代英国洛克希德等航空航天企业开发设计的垂直起降战机。

1950时代,英国洛克希德企业产品研发的垂直起降作战器。其设计灵感来源于二战时二战德军的试着。

二战以后,生产商针对飞行汽车的试着,依然在再次。可是进度却依然迟缓。

归根结底,飞机场的生产制造必须轻巧经久耐用的原材料,可是小车却对安全系数的要求较高。那时候的管理科学,并未找寻到能够另外考虑这二种规定的质轻原材料。

美国波音公司史学家钱猫小编·舒尔茨,曾在其经典著作中简评:飞机场一般是质轻的,小车则必须安裝保险杆和超重型汽车挡风玻璃等保险装置,这种设备将会会提升净重——净重是航运业的对手。

第二个缘故是,那时候人工智能技术的发展前景,危害了没有人控制系统的发展趋势。

1950时代初期,马文·明斯基明确提出了“逻辑思维的互联网”这一构想。根据几台不一样作用的连接网络电子计算机,顺利进行计算方式、效仿人们語言与发音的工作中。在那时候,那样的控制系统设计过度巨大,以致于全部行业进度迟缓。

直至近年来,深度学习的盛行,才扭曲了这一局势。接踵而来的电子计算机图像识别算法,逐步形成了流行的没有人操纵的基本。

第三个缘故是环保主义的掘起。在电力工程等新能源技术普及化前,大家针对飞行汽车的设计方案,還是根据汽柴油做为驱动力。但自1970时代,联合国组织公布了《人类环境宣言》后,先前志于飞行汽车的生产商,刚开始停住了步伐。

当初的难题,到今日已已不是积重难返的天堑了。

一项关键的发展来源于于 eVTOL(电动式垂直起降)技术性的发展趋势。

VLOT(垂直起降)技术性始于国防。之后,许多人将这项技术与充电电池电力能源融合,变成了可运用充电电池供电系统的eVTOL。它巨大降低了真空碳氢然料的耗费。

现阶段,最好是的充电电池储能技术为250 Wh / kg,预估到21世纪中期,充电电池储能技术可超过800 Wh / kg。这代表,一次电池充电,达到范畴约700千米。全世界一半的飞机航班,都会这一出航间距内。

假如用以短途旅游,则更为方便快捷。Uber曾估计,运用eVTOL技术性,飞行汽车可在10分鐘内,从新宿飞往横滨。一样的路途,小车要花40-50分鐘,电动车要花60-70分鐘。

《Nature》的一项科学研究则说明:针对100千米路途、旅客同样的状况,飞行汽车的消耗量比纯电动车高28%,但比车用汽油小车低35%。

eVTOL产生了一个幸福的景况,也为飞行汽车产生了短板。

一个明显的难题是,飞行汽车在时下很将会只适用短途旅游。与然料驱动力对比,充电电池充放电时不容易变轻了。这代表,当航空范畴超出200千米后,然料磷酸原四轴飞行器将减少70%的净重,但充电电池磷酸原四轴飞行器却净重不会改变,航空高效率对比也会大幅度降低。

这也找出了有关飞行汽车现阶段的几个窘境:充电电池、成本费、优秀人才和政策法规。

今日的车截锂电池,每磅充电电池工作能力仅为传统式燃料箱的 1/50。怎样开发设计高容化和轻量的充电电池,保持续航力時间和续驶的增加,将是飞行汽车可否普及化的关键要素。做为取代计划方案的另一构想是,将来,飞行汽车是不是能够运用太阳能发电或生物质供电系统。

成本费是另一个难题。

飞行汽车现阶段的市场价,最少在50万美金左右。价钱高新企业的一个缘故是产品研发资金投入必须大量的资产。怎样均衡资金投入与产出率的性价比高,是现阶段生产商的一个挑戰。英国金融时报曾从此明确提出否认:飞行汽车是一个乌托邦,它会像直升机一样,仅仅变成超级富豪的小玩具。

以便解决这类叫法,另外吸引住群众的兴趣爱好。2019年11月,英国怀俄明州前州长马特·米德,集结了200多位航空公司实业家,举办了一次密秘高峰会。这次大会定好了一个关键的议案:务必吸引住一大批人喜爱上这项技术,并觉得它将更改她们的生活习惯。

让群众很感兴趣,前提条件是可以有更很多人有着飞行汽车。这并不是一件非常容易的事。

PAL-V企业不久开售的飞行汽车,规定驾驶员务必另外有着汽车驾驶证和航空资格证书。这基本上是现阶段飞行汽车广泛的规定。这不但是一个门坎难题,也是一个安全隐患:怎样确保可以大批量塑造出及格的航空员?终究,飞行汽车可不可以随时随地泊车叫援救。

更实际的一个难题是。飞行汽车在商业前,必须一系列从道路交通法到服务设施的基本建设。这基本上是一个全新升级的出题,代表商业服务企业要勤奋游说政府部门制订出更对外开放的上空管理方法政策法规。先前,美国航空公司管理处,重新写过了相关管控小型飞机验证规范的法律法规,这被觉得是此项工作中的一个发展。

英文版

English version

In 1904, Jules Verne described in his book "The Global Master" a flying car shaped like a pterosaur. It is the father of that science fiction novel, utopia of future transportation.

Five years later, the content of a predictive analysis article published by the Guardian continued this imagination. The creator firmly believes that in the 21st century, flying cars will be spread on the sky of the city.

In order to maintain this outstanding imagination, the dreamer has just begun to act.

In 1917, Glen Curtis produced a flying car out of aluminum blocks. The whole car follows Verne's vision. The body is equipped with an airplane wing with a wingspan of nearly 12 meters, and a four-leaf spiral booster is installed at the rear. However, the first flying car in human history has not succeeded. Glen Curtis then joined the Wright brothers to form a business, and Curtis Wright became the largest British airline manufacturing company at that time.

The unsuccessfulness of the airport scientists did not blow out everyone's passion. In 1926, the car giant Ford Motor Company announced his flying car plan: Ford Flivver. Ford's research and development department has developed a two-cylinder car with a metallic skeleton diagram and wooden aircraft wings. A freelance writer for The Guardian even wrote a poem for the idea:

I dreamed that I was the Angel, rising to the paradise of Ford.

Everyone was too excited. This plan was equally unsuccessful.

Ideals are cut off by war. Warfare has given rise to new fantasies.

During World War II, the Germans and allies of World War II had just begun to use helicopters and rotorcraft airports as arenas. This type of four-axis aircraft capable of vertical take-off and landing does not require long-range sports fields and airport equipment. The latter is a sensitive device that cannot be guarded by any party in the war.

Incorporating this type of technology, and inspired by the ballistic missile program, the Italians have just started designing a rocket-assisted four-axis aircraft. In the final stage of take-off, the aviation crew can control this type of quadcopter, and then reasonably and precisely attack the overall goals of the Allies. The tragedy and good luck is that the quadcopter announced the crash and the death of the air crew when the first passenger inspection was carried out.

Since then, France has again developed a more exotic airfield. At the top of its head, it wears a three-leaf oversized booster, and the airfield bisects the road surface vertically when taking off. The attempt was equally unsuccessful this time, but it inspired the vertical take-off and landing aircraft developed and designed by aerospace companies such as Lockheed in the 1950s.

In the 1950s, vertical take-off and landing fighters developed by British Lockheed Enterprise products. Its design was inspired by the attempts of the Germans during World War II.

After World War II, manufacturers' attempts at flying cars have continued. But progress is still slow.

In the final analysis, the production of the airport must be light and durable raw materials, but the car has higher requirements for safety factors. At that time, the management science did not find lightweight raw materials that could consider these two requirements separately.

The American historian Money Cat editor Schultz once commented in his classic works: The airport is generally light, and the car must be equipped with safety devices such as bumpers and windshields for super heavy vehicles. Equipment will increase net weight-net weight is the rival of the shipping industry.

The second reason is that the development prospect of artificial intelligence technology at that time jeopardized the development trend of no one's control system.

In the early 1950s, Marvin Minsky explicitly put forward the idea of "the Internet of logical thinking". According to several different network-connected electronic computers, the calculation method is successfully performed, and people's language and pronunciation are imitated. At that time, the design of such a control system was so huge that the progress of the entire industry was slow.

Until recently, the prevalence of deep learning has distorted the situation. The following electronic computer image recognition algorithms gradually formed a popular basic without human manipulation.

The third reason is the rise of environmentalism. Before the popularization of new energy technologies such as power engineering, everyone's design for flying cars was based on gasoline and diesel as the driving force. But since the 1970s, when the United Nations released the "Declaration on the Human Environment," manufacturers who had previously set their sights on flying cars have just stopped.

The problems at the time were no longer a difficult day to come.

A key development comes from the technical development trend of eVTOL (electric vertical take-off and landing).

VLOT (Vertical Takeoff and Landing) technology began in defense. Since then, many people have combined this technology with rechargeable battery power sources and turned them into eVTOLs that can be powered by rechargeable batteries. It greatly reduces the cost of vacuum hydrocarbon materials.

At this stage, the best energy storage technology for rechargeable batteries is 250 Wh / kg. It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century, the energy storage technology for rechargeable batteries can exceed 800 Wh / kg. This means that once the battery is charged, it reaches a range of about 700 kilometers. Half of the world's aircraft flights will be within this departure distance.

If used for short trips, it is more convenient and quick. Uber once estimated that using eVTOL technology, flying cars can fly from Shinjuku to Yokohama in 10 minutes. The same journey takes 40-50 minutes for a car and 60-70 minutes for an electric car.

A scientific study in "Nature" shows that for 100 km of roads and passengers, the consumption of flying cars is 28% higher than that of pure electric vehicles, but 35% lower than that of petrol cars.

eVTOL produced a happy situation and also created a short board for flying cars.

An obvious problem is that flying cars will now only be suitable for short-distance travel. Compared with the driving force of the material, the rechargeable battery is not easy to lighten when it is charged and discharged. This means that when the aviation category exceeds 200 kilometers, it is expected that the net weight of the original phosphate quadcopter will be reduced by 70%, but the net weight of the rechargeable battery quadropter will not change, and the high efficiency comparison of aviation will be greatly reduced.

This also identified several dilemmas related to flying cars at this stage: rechargeable batteries, costs, talents, policies and regulations.

Today's car-cut lithium batteries have a working capacity of 1 / 50th of a conventional fuel tank per pound of rechargeable battery. How to develop and design a high-capacity and light-weight rechargeable battery, and to increase the continuous flight time and continuous driving will be the key factors for the popularity of flying cars. Another idea as a replacement plan is whether flying cars can use solar power or biomass power systems in the future.

Cost is another problem.

The current market price of flying cars is at least about 500,000 US dollars. One of the reasons for high-tech enterprises is that a large amount of assets must be invested in product research and development funds. How to balance the cost-effectiveness of capital input and output rate is a challenge for manufacturers at this stage. The British Financial Times has since made a clear denial: Flying cars are a utopia, and they will just become super-rich little toys like helicopters.

In order to solve this kind of name, and also attract the interests of the masses. In November 2019, Matt Mead, the former governor of Wyoming, United Kingdom, gathered more than 200 airline businessmen and held a secret summit. The conference finalized a key proposal: Make sure to attract a large number of people to love this technology and feel that it will change their lifestyle.

It is interesting to the masses, provided that there can be more people with flying cars. This is not an easy task.

For flying cars that PAL-V companies will soon sell, they are required to have a driver ’s license and an aviation qualification certificate. This is basically an extensive requirement for flying cars at this stage. This is not only a threshold problem, but also a safety hazard: how to ensure that qualified pilots can be formed in large numbers? After all, can a flying car be parked for help anytime, anywhere?

A more practical problem is. Before flying cars are commercialized, they must have a series of infrastructure from road traffic laws to service facilities. This is basically a new and upgraded question, representing business service companies to diligently lobby government departments to formulate more open air management methods, policies and regulations. Previously, the American Airlines Management Office re-written the relevant laws and regulations governing the verification specifications for small aircraft, which is considered to be a development in this work.

(图/文编译:飞行汽车 http://www.flycar.com.cn/)

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